Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14 (2023)


Last week we introduced the idea of socialization and today we’re talking a little more about how it works, including an introduction to five main types of socialization. We’ll explore anticipatory socialization from your family, the “hidden curriculum” in schools, peer groups, the role of media in socialization, and we’ll discuss total institutions and how they can act as a form of re-socialization.

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Coleman, James S. 1961. The Adolescent Society: The Social Life of the Teenager and Its Impact on Education. NY: The Free Press

Hill, David, et al. "Media and young minds." Pediatrics (2016): e20162591.

Vittrup, Brigitte, and George W. Holden. "Exploring the impact of educational television and parent–child discussions on children's racial attitudes." Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 11.1 (2011): 82-104.

Kearney, Melissa S., and Phillip B. Levine. "Media influences on social outcomes: The impact of MTV's 16 and pregnant on teen childbearing." The American Economic Review 105.12 (2015): 3597-3632.


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CC Kids:


What do you, as you’re watching me right, now, have in common with a toddler who’s being read a bedtime story? I’ll give you a clue.

It’s, also something you have in common with the kids in The Breakfast, Club.


Well, as with a soldier going through boot, camp.

Give, up?, You’re, all being socialized.


Also, the title of the episode.

You probably saw that.

Each of us is surrounded by people, and those people become a part of how we act and what we value.

This is known as socialization: the social process through which we develop our personalities and human potential and learn about our society and culture.

Last time.

We talked about the HOW of socialization, how we learn about the social world.

And, no matter which of the many theories out there that you like best.

The answer seems to be that we’re socialized by interacting with other people.

But, which people? What we didn’t talk about last week, was the WHO of socialization: Who.

Do we learn about the social world, from?, What people, and what institutions, have made you? Who you are today? Socialization is a life-long process, and it begins in our families.

Mom, Dad, grandparents, siblings – whoever you’re living with is pretty much your entire social world when you’re very young.

And that’s important, because your family is the source of what’s known as primary socialization – your first experiences with language, values, beliefs, behaviors, and norms of your society., Parents and guardians are your first teachers of everything – from the small stuff like how to brush your teeth to the big stuff.

Like sex, religion, the law, and politics.

The games.

They play with you, the books.

They read, the toys they buy for you, all provide you with what French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu called cultural capital – the non-financial assets that help people succeed in the world.

Some of this cultural capital may seem fairly innocuous – I mean, is reading Goodnight Moon, really making that big of an impact on a toddler? Yes, actually.

It teaches the “value” of reading as much as it helps the child begin to recognize.

Written language., The presence of books in the home is associated with children doing well in school.

Another important form of socialization that starts in the home is gender socialization, learning the psychological and social traits associated with a person’s sex.

Gender socialization starts from the moment that parents decide on a gendered name and when nurses put a pink or a blue hat on the baby.

Other group, memberships, like race and class, are important parts of initial socialization.

Race socialization is the process through which children learn the behaviors, values, and attitudes associated with racial groups.

Racial discrimination is partly the result of what parents teach their children about.

Members of other races.

And class socialization teaches the norms, values, traits, and behaviors you develop based on the social class you’re in.

This may help explain why more middle- and upper-class children go to college.

Not only can the families afford to send them, but these children are expected to attend.

They grow up in a home that normalizes college attendance., Now, gender, race, and class socialization are all examples of anticipatory socialization – that’s the social process where people learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they plan to join .

Small children anticipate becoming adults, for example, and they learn to play the part by watching their parents.

Gender socialization teaches boys to “be a man” and girls to “be a woman”.

But children also learn through secondary socialization – that’s the process through which children become socialized outside the home, within society at large.

This often starts with school.

Schools are often kids’ first introduction to things like bureaucracies, as well as systems of rules that require them to be in certain places at certain times, or act in ways that may be different from what they learned at home.


Only do schools teach us the three r’s – reading, ‘riting and ‘rithmetic – but they come with what sociologists call a hidden curriculum – that is, an education in norms, values, and beliefs that are passed along through schooling.

Take, for example.

A spelling, bee.

Its main goal is to teach literacy and encourage kids to learn how to spell.

But, something as seemingly benign as a spelling bee can have many hidden lessons that stick with kids, too.

For example.

It teaches them that doing better than their peers is rewarding – and it enforces the idea that the world has winners and losers.


Hidden curriculum of school in general is to expose kids to a variety of people.


Your only socialization is your family.

You just get one perspective on race, class, religion, politics, et cetera.


Once you go out into the world, you meet many people from many backgrounds, teaching you about race and ethnicity, social class, disability, gender and sexuality, and more.

School becomes not just a classroom for academic subjects, but also for learning about different kinds of people.

And, of course.

Schools are also where kids are exposed to one of the most defining aspects of school-age life: peer groups.

Peer groups are social groups whose members have interests, social position, and usually age in common.

As you get older.

Your peer group has a massive impact on the socialization process.

Let’s go to the Thought Bubble to to see just how big that impact can be.

In the late 1950s, American sociologist James Coleman began studying teenagers – how they interacted and how their social lives affected.

Their education.

He interviewed teens in 11 high schools in the Midwest, asking them questions about what social group they identified with and who else they considered.

Members of their group.- Based on these interviews, Coleman identified four main social categories.

And, uh.

The names of these categories will probably sound familiar to you: They were nerds, jocks, leading crowd, and burnouts.


He discovered the 1950s version of The Breakfast Club.

And, with these social categories came social prescriptions – behaviors that were expected of people in those groups.

Coleman found that certain things were important to the members of certain groups, like being a good dancer or smoking or having money or getting good.


He also tested the students’ IQs and assessed their grades.

And surprise! It turned out that who you hung out with affected.

How well you did in school.

In some of the schools, getting good grades was considered an important criterion for the “leading group” – aka, the popular kids–, but in other schools, it wasn’t.

And in the schools, where good grades were not a sign of popularity.

Students who scored high on IQ tests actually did worse on their exams than similarly smart students at schools.

Where good grades made you popular., Thanks Thought, Bubble!, Now, Coleman’s study might seem like common sense – of course you and your friends are gonna, be pretty similar.


We choose to be friends with people who are like us? Well, not entirely.

Coleman’s study showed that we don’t just pick peer groups that fit into our existing traits – instead, peer groups help mold what traits we end up: with.

OK, so far.

We have family, schools, and peers as the main forces that influence someone’s socialization.


What about me? Yes, me, Nicole, Sweeney., Am I, part of your socialization? Or more precisely, are youtube videos considered a form of socialization? Short, answer:, yes!, Long, answer:, The media you consume are absolutely a part of your socialization.

TV and the internet are huge parts of Americans’ lives.

And how we consume our media is affected by social traits, like class, race, and age.

A teenager or twenty-something in 2017 is much more likely to watch online media, like Netflix or youtube, than television.


Low-Income Americans watch much more TV than their higher-income counterparts.

The media.

We consume also impact us dramatically., The American Academy of Pediatrics, for example, has said there are connections between excessive television viewing in early childhood and cognitive, language and social emotional delays.

But TV can also influence the attitudes of viewers, especially young ones.


Example, studies have found that kids exposed to Sesame Street in randomized-controlled trial, settings, reported more positive attitudes toward people of different races – most likely a result of the program’s wide variety of characters from different racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Tv also affects us well beyond childhood.


Recent study found that MTV’s, “16 and Pregnant” may have acted as a cautionary tale, helping to change teen girls’ attitudes toward birth control and contributing to declining rates of teen pregnancy.

So far, the types of socialization we’ve talked about have been fairly subtle — but there are also more intense types of socialization.

Total institutions are places where people are completely cut off from the outside world, and face strict rules for how they must behave.

First coined by sociologist Erving Goffman.

The term “total institution” refers to places like the military, prisons, boarding, schools, or psychiatric institutions that control all aspects of their residents’ lives – how they dress, how they speak, where they eat, where they sleep.

And in a total institution, residents undergo resocialization, where their environment is carefully controlled, to encourage them to develop a new set of norms, values, or beliefs.


Do this by, basically, breaking down your existing identity and then using rewards and punishment to build up a whole new you.

Think about every boot camp movie you’ve ever seen.

All soldiers are given the same haircut and uniform, expected to reply to questions in the same way, put through the same grueling exercises, and humiliated by the same officer.

This process, re-socializes the soldiers to put extreme value on their identity within the group, making them more willing to value self-sacrifice if their unit is in danger.

So, whether you’re GI Jane training for a reconnaissance team or Molly Ringwald trying to maintain her queen-bee status in the leading crowd.

The you that you are has been powerfully shaped by people and institutions.


Think back on your own life – who has been the biggest influence on YOUR socialization? Who.

Do you think that you yourself have influenced? Hard questions to answer, maybe, but definitely worthwhile – and hopefully a little easier? Now that you’ve learned how sociologists think about it.

Today, we learned about five different types of socialization.

We talked about anticipatory socialization from your family, like gender norms, that prepare children for entering society.

We discussed the “hidden curriculum” in schools.

We learned about peer groups through a look at James Coleman’s study of teenage social groups.

We explored the role of media in socialization., And finally.

We talked about total institutions and how they can act as a form of re-socialization.


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Socialization: Crash Course Sociology #14? ›

The scientific study of society and human behavior, on every level, and how those levels interact. 1800s French philosopher who wanted to create a systemic science for investigating society, to understand and perhaps fix society's problems. A group of people who share a culture and a territory.

What is sociology crash course sociology #1 summary? ›

The scientific study of society and human behavior, on every level, and how those levels interact. 1800s French philosopher who wanted to create a systemic science for investigating society, to understand and perhaps fix society's problems. A group of people who share a culture and a territory.

What are the 4 types of socialization in sociology? ›

B. Types of Socialization
  • Primary socialization. This type of socialization happens when a child learns the values, norms and behaviors that should be displayed in order to live accordingly to a specific culture. ...
  • Secondary socialization. ...
  • Developmental socialization. ...
  • Anticipatory socialization. ...
  • Resocialization.

What is anticipatory socialization crash course? ›

Now, gender, race, and class socialization are all examples of anticipatory socialization – that's the social process where people learn to take on the values and standards of groups that they plan to join .

What is socialization in sociology? ›

Socialization, Sociology of

Socialization generally refers to the process of social influence through which a person acquires the culture or subculture of their group, and in the course of acquiring these cultural elements the individual's self and personality are shaped.

Is sociology class easy in college? ›

Sociology is not an easy major. Sociology requires analysis and critical thinking, an understanding of complex theories and theorists, and awareness of the social contexts of a variety of social problems.

How do I pass sociology? ›

  1. Keep yourself well prepared well in advance. ...
  2. Prepare Notes. ...
  3. Do not mug the answers. ...
  4. Do not study from various sources. ...
  5. Avoid mind-boggling. ...
  6. Try to study in groups. ...
  7. Ensure that you understand all the terms in bold.
Jan 9, 2018

What are the 5 main agents of socialization? ›

The primary agents are family, schools and daycares, peers, and media. Other agents of socialization include religion and ethnicity, political groups, work, neighborhoods, social activities, and institutions.

What are 3 examples of socialization? ›

Interacting with friends and family, being told to obey rules, being rewarded for doing chores, and being taught how to behave in public places are all examples of socialization that enable a person to function within his or her culture.

What are the 3 parts of socialization? ›

Socialization has three major processes: the primary process of socialization, the secondary process of socialization, and the adult process of socialization.

What are the six socialization tactics? ›

Organizational socialization (or onboarding) strategies are characterized in accordance with six dimensions—collective or individual, formal or informal, sequential or random, fixed or variable, serial or disjunctive, and investiture or divestiture.

Why is socialization important? ›

Socializing not only staves off feelings of loneliness, but also it helps sharpen memory and cognitive skills, increases your sense of happiness and well-being, and may even help you live longer.

How do you break the cycle of socialization? ›

  1. Focus on what's important.
  2. Keep the flow logical.
  3. Create character.
  4. Make your storytelling 'big' or 'small'
  5. Control your face.
  6. Talk with your hands and act out the story.
  7. Allow for interaction.
  8. Respond to your audience.

What are the 8 types of socialization? ›

  • Primary socialization.
  • Secondary socialization.
  • Anticipatory socialization.
  • Resocialization.
  • Organizational socialization.
  • Group socialization.
  • Gender socialization.
  • Racial socialization.

What are the 5 different definition of socialization? ›

Definition of Socialization according to Ogburn: “It is the process of learning the norms of the group and society “ 4. Maciver: “It is the process through which social beings develops relationships and association with each other.” 5. Bogardus: “A process of learning to live and work together is called socialization.”

What is socialization in one word? ›

Definitions of socialization. the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture. “the socialization of children to the norms of their culture” synonyms: acculturation, enculturation, socialisation.

Is sociology harder than psychology? ›

No, sociology isn't easier than psychology.

In their essence, they are both scientific fields that study human behavior. Psychology focuses on the individual's brain and behavior, while sociology focuses more broadly on collectivist tendencies, such as building societies and the effect society has on its denizens.

Is sociology a lot of math? ›

Bachelor's programs in sociology require students to take a number of mathematics and mathematics-related courses to prepare them for conducting sociology research. Common requirements are introduction to statistics, calculus 1 and introduction to social research methods.

Why is it so hard to study sociology? ›

Three unique qualities of the sociological perspective--emergence, structure, and self- consciousness--make this perspective difficult to grasp. Here these dialectical qualities are utilized reflexively to analyze the implicit epistemological dimensions of sociology itself.

Do you need math for sociology? ›

Sociology majors need one MATH course to graduate. The Department recommends MATH 1065 (or MATH 1066 for Business minors), but students may take MATH 1050 (Explorations of Math) without taking the math placement test, if they prefer.

Are flashcards good for sociology? ›

A great way to enhance your understanding of important sociology concepts is to review them through repetition. These flashcard sets make this process easy! Review the words or concepts on the front of the cards then flip them over to ensure you've accurately identified the answers on the back.

Is sociology hard to pass? ›

You do need to have a good memory to excel at sociology, as you cannot pass this A-level without knowing the right sociology-specific terminology and studies. This is an essay subject, so students who find essay writing easy also feel that sociology is an easy A-level to pass.

What are the 7 agencies of socialization? ›

Socialization agents are a combination of social groups and social institutions that provide the first experiences of socialization. Families, early education, peer groups, the workplace, religion, government, and media all communicate expectations and reinf orce norms.

What are the 7 agents of socialization? ›

agents of socialization: agents of socialization, or institutions that can impress social norms upon an individual, include the family, religion, peer groups, economic systems, legal systems, penal systems, language, and the media.

What is the most important socialization? ›

The Family. The family is perhaps the most important agent of socialization for children. Parents' values and behavior patterns profoundly influence those of their daughters and sons.

What are the cycles of socialization? ›

This socialization process is pervasive (coming from all sides and sources), consistent (patterned and predictable), circular (self- supporting), self-perpetuating (intradependent) and often visible (unconscious and unnamed) (Bell 1997).

What are 2 examples of primary socialization? ›

Examples of primary agents of socialization include family, daycare, schools, peer groups, and media.

What happens to people without socialization? ›

Without socialization, a society's culture would perish as members died off. A conflict theorist might argue that socialization reproduces inequality from generation to generation by conveying different expectations and norms to those with different social characteristics.

What happens if you don't socialize? ›

Poor social skills often lead to stress and loneliness, which can negatively affect physical as well as mental health.

How do you socialize with others? ›

How can I enhance my social skills?
  1. Improve your emotional intelligence. Put yourself in their shoes. ...
  2. Look inwards. ...
  3. Practice effective communication skills. ...
  4. Fake it 'till you make it. ...
  5. Ask more than you speak. ...
  6. Give compliments. ...
  7. Be polite. ...
  8. Use open body language and non-verbal communication.
May 16, 2022

What is the core of socialization? ›

At the center or core of the cycle of socialization are fear, misunderstanding, insecurity, confusion, etc. Source: Source: Adams, M., Bell, L. A., Griffin, P.

What is the rule of socialization? ›

The role of socialization is to acquaint individuals with the norms of a given social group or society. It prepares individuals to participate in a group by illustrating the expectations of that group. Socialization is very important for children, who begin the process at home with family, and continue it at school.

What are the keys to socialization? ›

Socialization involves both social structure and interpersonal relations. It contains three key parts: context, content and process, and results. Context, perhaps, defines socialization the most, as it refers to culture, language, social structures and one's rank within them.

What are your top 3 the agents of socialization? ›

The family is usually considered the primary agent of socialization, and schools, peer groups, and the mass media are considered secondary socialization agencies.

What are the characteristics of socialization? ›

Socialisation is known as the process of inducting the individual into the social world. The term socialisation refers to the process of interaction through which the growing individual learns the habits, attitudes, values and beliefs of the social group into which he has been born.

What is the summary of sociology class? ›

The College-Level Sociology course is designed to introduce students to the sociological study of society. Sociology focuses on the systematic understanding of social interaction, social organization, social institutions, and social change.

What is sociology short summary? ›

Sociology is the study of social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior. Sociologists investigate the structure of groups, organizations, and societies, and how people interact within these contexts.

What is the summary of learning about sociology? ›

Lesson Summary

Sociology is the study of social behavior. Sociologists examine social behavior in individuals and groups, and also study social structures like society. Since sociologists believe that all human actions come from the intersection of personal choices and social influences, they have a lot to study.

What are 5 things you learn in sociology? ›

At the societal level, sociology examines and explains matters like crime and law, poverty and wealth, prejudice and discrimination, schools and education, business firms, urban community, and social movements.

What can I expect to learn in sociology class? ›

A sociology student will study subjects like family interaction, religious traditions and organized crime, and better understand issues surrounding race, gender and social class.

What is the basic core understanding of sociology? ›

The basic insight of sociology is that human behavior is shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that takes place within those groups. We are who we are and we behave the way we do because we happen to live in a particular society at a particular point in space and time.

What are 3 examples of sociology? ›

Some examples of sociology include studying racial issues, gender dynamics, phenomena and feelings around entertainment, the structure of different social institutions, and the development of different social movements.

Is sociology hard in college? ›

It is often thought by students that sociology is an easy major, but there is a lot of work that goes into it. There are many different topics and ideas covered within this field of study, which involves a lot of reading. The sheer volume of texts you are expected to read from a variety of sources can be challenging.

Why study sociology in simple words? ›

Studying sociology provides a better understanding of the following: Reasons for social differences, including differences in social behavior. Reasons for the differentials in group opportunities and outcomes. The relevance of social hierarchies and social power in everyday life.

What is 1 example of sociology? ›

Examples of sociology could include studying the relationship between culture and society, examining social movements, or researching how communication affects human behavior.

Is sociology a good class? ›

The importance of taking sociology class in high school are it will give a better understanding of mankind and high levels of Student Satisfaction. In my view, sociology is useful because it gives us some other way of information society and why human beings do what they do. Sociology is the study of society.

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